Our genetic makeup determines our appearance (the colour of our hair and eyes, if we are tall or short) and how we respond to different external factors (nutrients, physical activities, medications). Our DNA can explain how we metabolize certain substances and how our body can lose and gain weight.
Apart from proteins and fats, it is the main macronutrient. It is the basic source of energy.
The amount of blood that is moving through our cardio-vascular system in a minute.
A description of overall aerobic capacity, which includes central (heart, lungs, blood vessels) and peripheral (muscles) components.
People of white origin.
A basic process where energy, carbon dioxide and water are formed from glucose and oxygen.
A rod-like form of the DNA molecule containing many hundreds or thousands of genes. The nucleus contains 22 autosomal chromosome pairs as well as one pair of sex chromosomes. In addition to the DNA molecule, there are proteins (mainly the histones) around which the DNA wraps. Such wrapping and further transformation result in a tightly formed chromosome taking up much less space than in an unfolded form.
A chromosome where both chromosomes in a pair are similar. One chromosome from a chromosome pair is obtained from the father, the other one from the mother.
There are two types of chromosomes: X (female) and Y (male). Women have two X chromosomes in a pair (XX) while men have an X and a Y chromosome (XY); the Y chromosome is inherited only from the father and its presence in the fetal development results in the creation of a male child.
It helps cholesterol in passing through the intestinal mucus, and it contains a minimal amount of cholesterol and triglycerides.
Non-protein compound, bound on a protein, and is necessary for protein’s biological activity.
DNA sequence of analysed locus, which contains a nucleotide that is more common in a population (its frequency is higher than 50 percent).
Compound carbohydrates, which are slowly digested, and energy is provided for a long time, which makes us feel satiety longer. The increase of blood sugar level is slow, and not rapid, as in simple carbohydrates.
The training that involves low to moderate intensity activity without rest intervals: walking, cycling, running, swimming.
A high-energy molecule, which is a source of energy for the muscle.